Chapter 523 Condemnation Proceedings
523.060 - Right of trial by jury in condemnation proceedings — jury responsibility in determining fair market value.
1.Any plaintiff or defendant, individual or corporate, shall have the right of trial by jury of twelve persons, if either party file exceptions to the award of commissioners in any condemnation case.
2.Such jury shall use the definition of fair market value provided for in subdivision (1) of section 523.001.
523.283 - Easement or right-of-way by certain entities fixed by use — definition — commissioners appointed by court — attorneys' fees and costs for prevailing property owners.
1.Easements or right-of-way interests acquired after August 28, 2006, by a private utility company, public utility, rural electric cooperative, municipally owned utility, pipeline, or railroad, by either formal condemnation proceedings or by negotiations in lieu of condemnation proceedings, are fixed and determined by the particular use for which the property was acquired as described in either the instrument of conveyance or in the condemnation petition.Expanded use of the property beyond that which is described in the instrument of conveyance or the condemnation petition shall require either an additional condemnation proceeding in order to acquire the additional rights or by new negotiations for the expanded use of the property and appropriate consideration and damages to the current owner of the property for the expanded use.
2.For purposes of this section, the term "expanded use" shall mean:
(1)The exclusion of use by the current owner of the burdened property from an area greater than the area originally described at the time of acquisition by the condemning authority; or
(2)An increased footprint or burden greater than the footprint or burden originally described in the instrument of conveyance or condemnation petition.As used in this subdivision, the term "increased footprint or burden" shall mean a different type of use or a use presenting an unreasonably burdensome impact on the property, the landowner, or the activities being conducted on the property by the landowner.
3.Commissioners appointed by the court under section 523.040 and, where applicable, a jury on a trial of exceptions from the commissioners' award shall be entitled to assume, in assessing the just compensation due for a taking, that the condemning authority shall exercise, from and after the date the property interest is acquired, each and every right acquired to the fullest extent allowed by the condemnation petition.
4.If a property owner prevails in an action for trespass or expanded use against a private utility company, public utility, rural electric cooperative, municipally owned utility, pipeline, or railroad, such property owner may be awarded reasonable attorneys' fees, costs, and expenses.
523.039 - Just compensation for condemned property, amount.
In all condemnation proceedings filed after December 31, 2006, just compensation for condemned property shall be determined under one of the three following subdivisions, whichever yields the highest compensation, as applicable to the particular type of property and taking:
(1)An amount equivalent to the fair market value of such property;
(2)For condemnations that result in a homestead taking, an amount equivalent to the fair market value of such property multiplied by one hundred twenty-five percent; or
(3)For condemnations of property that result in any taking that prevents the owner from utilizing property in substantially the same manner as it was currently being utilized on the day of the taking and involving property owned within the same family for fifty or more years, an amount equivalent to the sum of the fair market value and heritage value.For the purposes of this subdivision, family ownership of property may be established through evidence of ownership by children, grandchildren, siblings, or nephews or nieces of the family member owning the property fifty years prior to the taking; and in addition, may be established through marriage or adoption by such family members.If any entity owns the real property, members of the family shall have an ownership interest in more than fifty percent of the entity in order to be within the family line of ownership for the purposes of this subdivision.The property owner shall have the burden of proving to the commissioners or jury that the property has been owned within the same family for fifty or more years.
523.070 - Costs, by whom paid.
The cost of the proceeding to appropriate the right-of-way shall be paid by the company seeking the appropriation, up to and including the filing and copying of the report of the commissioners' and the court, as to any costs made by subsequent litigation, may make such order as in its discretion may be deemed just.The court shall allow the commissioners a reasonable compensation for their services, which shall be taxed as costs in the proceedings.
523.274 - Consideration of each parcel of property — time limit on commencement of eminent domain acquisitions.
1.Where eminent domain authority is based upon a determination that a defined area is blighted, the condemning authority shall individually consider each parcel of property in the defined area with regard to whether the property meets the relevant statutory definition of blight.If the condemning authority finds a preponderance of the defined redevelopment area is blighted, it may proceed with condemnation of any parcels in such area.
2.No action to acquire property by eminent domain within a redevelopment area shall be commenced later than five years from the date of the legislative determination, by ordinance, or otherwise, that the property is blighted, substandard, contains unsanitary conditions, or is eligible for classification within a conservation area as defined in section 99.805.However, such determination may be renewed for successive five-year periods by the legislative body.
523.001 - Definitions.
For the purposes of this chapter, the following terms shall mean:
(1)"Fair market value", the value of the property taken after considering comparable sales in the area, capitalization of income, and replacement cost less depreciation, singularly or in combination, as appropriate, and additionally considering the value of the property based upon its highest and best use, using generally accepted appraisal practices.If less than the entire property is taken, fair market value shall mean the difference between the fair market value of the entire property immediately prior to the taking and the fair market value of the remaining or burdened property immediately after the taking;
(2)"Heritage value", the value assigned to any real property, including but not limited to real property owned by a business enterprise with fewer than one hundred employees, that has been owned within the same family for fifty or more years, such value to be fifty percent of fair market value;
(3)"Homestead taking", any taking of a dwelling owned by the property owner and functioning as the owner's primary place of residence or any taking of the owner's property within three hundred feet of the owner's primary place of residence that prevents the owner from utilizing the property in substantially the same manner as it is currently being utilized.
523.205 - Relocation assistance given, when — definitions — relocation plans — contents — residential payments — business payments — advance payments — waiver — notice — report — ineligibility for tax abatement, when — additional requirements.
1.Any public agency as defined in section 523.200 which is required, as a condition to the receipt of federal funds to give relocation assistance to any displaced person, is hereby authorized and directed to give similar relocation assistance to displaced persons when the property involved is being acquired for the same public purpose through the same procedures, and is being purchased solely through expenditure of state or local funds.
2.Any political subdivision, governmental entity, or corporation created under chapter 353, initiating condemnation proceedings which may necessitate displacement of persons, when such displacement is not subject to the provisions of the Federal Uniform Relocation and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (42 U.S.C. Sections 4601 to 4655, as amended) or subsection 1 of this section, shall establish by ordinance or rule a relocation policy which shall include, but not be limited to, the provisions and requirements of subsections 2 to 15 of this section, or in lieu thereof, such relocation policy shall contain provisions and requirements which are equivalent to the requirements of the Federal Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (42 U.S.C. Sections 4601 to 4655, as amended).
3.As used in this section, the following terms shall mean:
(1)"Business", any lawful activity that is conducted:
(a)Primarily for the purchase, sale or use of personal or real property or for the manufacture, processing or marketing of products or commodities;
(b)Primarily for the sale of services to the public; or
(c)On a not-for-profit basis by any organization that has obtained an exemption from the payment of federal income taxes as provided in Section 501(c)(3) of Title 26, U.S.C., as amended, and veterans organizations;
(2)"Decent, safe and sanitary dwelling", a dwelling which meets applicable housing and occupancy codes.The dwelling shall:
(a)Be structurally sound, weathertight and in good repair;
(b)Contain a safe electrical wiring system;
(c)Contain an adequate heating system;
(d)Be adequate in size with respect to the number of rooms needed to accommodate the displaced person; and
(e)For a handicapped person, be free of any barriers which would preclude reasonable ingress, egress or use of the dwelling;
(3)"Handicapped person", any person who is deaf, legally blind or orthopedically disabled to the extent that acquisition of another residence presents a greater burden than other persons would encounter or to the extent that modifications to the replacement residence would be necessary;
(4)"Person", any individual, family, partnership, corporation, or association that has a legal right to occupy the property, including but not limited to month-to-month tenants.
4.Every urban redevelopment corporation acquiring property within a redevelopment area shall submit a relocation plan as part of the redevelopment plan.
5.Unless the property acquisition under the operation of chapter 99, chapter 100, or chapter 353 is subject to federal relocation standards or subsection 1 of this section, the relocation plan shall provide for the following:
(1)Payments to all eligible displaced persons, as defined in section 523.200, who occupied the property to be acquired for not less than ninety days prior to the initiation of negotiations who are required to vacate the premises;
(2)A program for identifying special needs of displaced persons with specific consideration given to income, age, size of family, nature of business, availability of suitable replacement facilities and vacancy rates of affordable facilities;
(3)A program for providing proper and timely notice to all displaced persons, including a general description of their potential rights and benefits if they are displaced, their eligibility for relocation assistance, and the nature of that assistance.The notices required for compliance with this section are as follows:
(a)A general information notice that shall be issued at the approval and selection of a designated redeveloper and shall inform residential and nonresidential owners and occupants of a potential project, including the potential acquisition of the property;
(b)A notice of relocation eligibility that shall be issued as soon as feasible after the execution of the redevelopment agreement and shall inform residential and nonresidential occupants within the project area who will be displaced of their relocation assistance and nature of that assistance, including ninety days' advance notice of the date the occupants must vacate;
(4)A program for referrals of displaced persons with provisions for a minimum of three decent, safe and sanitary housing referrals for residential persons or suitable referral sites for displaced businesses, a minimum of ninety days' notice of referral sites for all displaced persons prior to the date such displaced persons are required to vacate the premises, and arrangements for transportation to inspect referral sites; and
(5)Every displaced person shall be given a ninety-day notice to vacate, prior to the date such displaced person is required to vacate the premises.
6.All displaced residential persons eligible for payments shall be provided with relocation payments based upon one of the following, at the option of the person:
(1)A one thousand dollar fixed moving expense payment; or
(2)Actual reasonable costs of relocation including, but not limited to, actual moving costs, utility deposits, key deposits, storage of personal property up to one month, utility transfer and connection fees and other initial rehousing deposits including first and last month's rent and security deposit.Such costs of relocation shall not include the cost of a replacement property or any capital improvements thereto.
7.All displaced businesses eligible for payments shall be provided with relocation payments based upon the following, at the option of the business:
(1)A three thousand dollar fixed moving expense payment and up to an additional ten thousand dollars for reestablishment expenses.Reestablishment expenses are limited to costs incurred for physical improvements to the replacement property to accommodate the particular business at issue; or
(2)Actual costs of moving including costs for packing, crating, disconnection, dismantling, reassembling and installing all personal equipment and costs for relettering similar signs and similar replacement stationery, and up to an additional ten thousand dollars for reestablishment expenses.Reestablishment expenses are limited to actual costs incurred for physical improvements to the replacement property to accommodate the particular business at issue.
8.If a displaced person demonstrates the need for an advance relocation payment, in order to avoid or reduce a hardship, the developer or public agency shall issue the payment subject to such safeguards as are appropriate to ensure that the objective of the payment is accomplished.Payment for a satisfactory claim shall be made within thirty days following receipt of sufficient documentation to support the claim.All claims for relocation payment shall be filed with the displacing agency within six months after:
(1)For tenants, the date of displacement;
(2)For owners, the date of displacement or the final payment for the acquisition of the real property, whichever is later.
9.Any displaced person, who is also the owner of the premises, may waive relocation payments as part of the negotiations for acquisition of the interest held by such person.Such waiver shall be in writing, shall disclose the person's knowledge of the provisions of this section and his entitlement to payment and shall be filed with the acquiring public agency.However, any such waiver shall not include a waiver of any notice provisions of this section, and a displaced person shall remain entitled to all of the provisions regarding programs which are contained in subdivisions (2) and (3) of subsection 5 of this section.
10.All persons eligible for relocation benefits shall be notified in writing of the availability of such relocation payments and assistance, with such notice to be given concurrently with the notice of referral sites as required in subdivision (4) of subsection 5 of this section.
11.Any urban redevelopment corporation, its assigns or transferees, which have been provided any assistance under the operation of chapter 99, chapter 100, chapter 353, or this chapter, with land acquisition by the local governing body, shall be required to make a report to the local governing body or appropriate public agency which shall include, but not be limited to, the addresses of all occupied residential buildings and structures within the redevelopment area and the names and addresses of persons displaced by the redeveloper and specific relocation benefits provided to each person, as well as a sample notice provided to each person.
12.An urban redevelopment corporation which fails to comply with the relocation requirements provided in this section shall not be eligible for tax abatement as provided for in chapter 353.
13.The requirements set out in this section shall be considered minimum standards.In reviewing any proposed relocation plan under the operation of chapter 99, chapter 100, or chapter 353, the local governing body or public agency shall determine the adequacy of the proposal and may require additional elements to be provided.
14.Relocation assistance shall not be provided to any person who purposely resides or locates his business in a redevelopment area solely for the purpose of obtaining relocation benefits.
15.The provisions of sections 523.200 and 523.205 shall apply to land acquisitions under the operation of chapter 99, chapter 100, or chapter 353, filed for approval, approved or amended on or after August 31, 1991, and, as provided by subsection 2 of this section, any other land acquisition by a political subdivision or governmental entity through condemnation proceedings initiated after December 31, 2006.
523.050 - Commissioners' report — notice of filing — review.
1.Upon the filing of such report of the commissioners, the clerk of the court in which the same is filed shall duly notify the party whose property is affected of the filing; and the report of the commissioners may be reviewed by the court in which the proceedings are had, on written exceptions, filed by either party in the clerk's office, within thirty days after the service of such notice; and the court shall make such order as right and justice may require, and may order a new appraisement, upon good cause shown.
2.Such new appraisement shall, at the request of either party, be made by a jury, under the supervision of the court, as in ordinary cases of inquiry of damages; but notwithstanding such exceptions, such company may proceed to erect such telephone or telegraph line, or construct such road or railroad; and any subsequent proceedings shall only affect the amount of compensation to be allowed.In all cases arising under the provisions of this chapter, the report of commissioners, when signed by a majority of them, shall be taken and considered as the report of all.
3.If after ninety days after the award is paid into court no agreement has been filed and no party having an interest in the award has filed a distribution motion, the court shall determine the percentage of the award to which each party having an interest in it is entitled.
523.250 - Notice of intended acquisition — mailing requirements.
1.At least sixty days before filing of a condemnation petition seeking to acquire an interest in real property, the condemning authority shall provide the owner of record of such property with a written notice concerning the intended acquisition.Such notice shall include:
(1)Identification of the interest in real property to be acquired and a statement of the legal description or commonly known location of the property;
(2)The purpose or purposes for which the property is to be acquired;
(3)A statement that the property owner has the right to:
(a)Seek legal counsel at the owner's expense;
(b)Make a counteroffer and engage in further negotiations;
(c)Obtain such owner's own appraisal of just compensation;
(d)Have just compensation determined preliminarily by court-appointed condemnation commissioners and, ultimately, by a jury;
(e)Seek assistance from the office of the ombudsman for property rights created under section 523.277;
(f)Contest the right to condemn in the condemnation proceeding; and
(g)Exercise the rights to request vacation of an easement under the procedures and circumstances provided for in section 527.188.
An owner may waive the requirements of this subsection prescribed above in a writing executed by the owner.
2.The written notice required by this section shall be deposited in the United States mail, certified or registered, and with postage prepaid, addressed to the owner of record as listed in the office of the city or county assessor for the city or county in which the property is located.The receipt issued to the condemning authority by the United States Post Office for certified or registered mail shall constitute proof of compliance with this notice requirement; provided, however, that nothing in this section shall preclude a condemning authority from proving compliance with this notice requirement by other competent evidence.
523.040 - Appointment of commissioners — duties — notice of property viewing.
1.The court, or judge thereof in vacation, on being satisfied that due notice of the pendency of the petition has been given, shall appoint three disinterested commissioners, who shall be residents of the county in which the real estate or a part thereof is situated, and in any city not within a county, any county with a charter form of government and with more than one million inhabitants, or any county with a charter form of government and with more than six hundred thousand but fewer than seven hundred thousand inhabitants at least one of the commissioners shall be either a licensed real estate broker or a state-licensed or state-certified real estate appraiser, to assess the damages which the owners may severally sustain by reason of such appropriation, who, within forty-five days after appointment by the court, which forty-five days may be extended by the court to a date certain with good cause shown, after applying the definition of fair market value contained in subdivision (1) of section 523.001, and after having viewed the property, shall return to the clerk of such court, under oath, their report in duplicate of such assessment of damages, setting forth the amount of damages allowed to the person or persons named as owning or claiming the tract of land condemned, and should more than one tract be condemned in the petition, then the damages allowed to the owner, owners, claimant or claimants of each tract, respectively, shall be stated separately, together with a specific description of the tracts for which such damages are assessed; and the clerk shall file one copy of said report in his office and record the same in the order book of the court, and he shall deliver the other copy, duly certified by him, to the recorder of deeds of the county where the land lies (or to the recorder of deeds of the city of St. Louis, if the land lies in said city) who shall record the same in his office, and index each tract separately as provided in section 59.440, and the fee for so recording shall be taxed by the clerk as costs in the proceedings; and thereupon such company shall pay to the clerk the amount thus assessed for the party in whose favor such damages have been assessed; and on making such payment it shall be lawful for such company to hold the interest in the property so appropriated for the uses prescribed in this section; and upon failure to pay the assessment, the court may, upon motion and notice by the party entitled to such damages, enforce the payment of the same by execution, unless the said company shall, within ten days from the return of such assessment, elect to abandon the proposed appropriation of any parcel of land, by an instrument in writing to that effect, to be filed with the clerk of the court, and entered on the minutes of the court, and as to so much as is thus abandoned, the assessment of damages shall be void.
2.Prior to the issuance of any report under subsection 1 of this section, a commissioner shall notify all parties named in the condemnation petition no less than ten days prior to the commissioners' viewing of the property of the named parties' opportunity to accompany the commissioners on the commissioners' viewing of the property and of the named parties' opportunity to present information to the commissioners.
3.The commissioners shall view the property, hear arguments, and review other relevant information that may be offered by the parties.
523.215 - Not to affect other condemnation compensation.
Nothing herein shall be deemed to alter or add to just compensation in condemnation proceedings as now provided by law.
523.045 - Interest on awards payable when — enforcement.
If, within thirty days after the filing of any condemnation commissioners' report under the provisions of section 523.040, the condemnor shall have neither paid the amount of the commissioners' award to the persons named in the petition as owning or claiming any property or rights or to the clerk of the court for such named persons nor timely filed its written election to abandon the proposed appropriation of said property or rights, then interest on the amount of any subsequent verdict for said named persons, or if there be no such verdict, then on the amount of the award, at the rate of six percent per annum from the date of filing the report shall be added to said verdict or award and paid to said named person or to the clerk for them.If, within thirty days after the filing of any such commissioners' report the condemnor shall have paid the amount of any commissioners' award to the persons named in the petition as owning or claiming any property or rights or to the clerk of the court for them and the amount of such award shall be superseded by a subsequent verdict or amount larger than the award paid, then interest on the amount by which such verdict exceeds the award, at the rate of six percent per annum from the date of filing the report, shall be added to the amount of the verdict; but if the amount of the award shall be superseded by a subsequent verdict or amount smaller than the award paid, then judgment shall be entered against said persons named to repay to condemnor the amount by which the award paid exceeds the amount of the verdict, with six percent interest on such excess payment from the date of the payment of the award.If, within thirty days after the filing of any such commissioners' report, the condemnor shall have neither paid the amount of the award to said persons or to the clerk for them nor filed its written election to abandon the appropriation, but shall thereafter timely file such written election to abandon, then the court may, upon motion filed by said persons within ten days after the filing of said election, assess against the condemnor six percent interest on the amount of the award from the date of the filing of the commissioners' report to the date of the filing of such election, enter judgment thereon and enforce payment thereof by execution or other appropriate proceeding.
523.010 - Lands may be condemned, when — petition — parties — power of public utility to condemn certain lands, limitation.
1.In case land, or other property, is sought to be appropriated by any road, railroad, street railway, telephone, telegraph or any electrical corporation organized for the manufacture or transmission of electric current for light, heat or power, including the construction, when that is the case, of necessary dams and appurtenant canals, flumes, tunnels and tailraces and including the erection, when that is the case, of necessary electric steam powerhouses, hydroelectric powerhouses and electric substations or any oil, pipeline or gas corporation engaged in the business of transporting or carrying oil, liquid fertilizer solutions, or gas by means of pipes or pipelines laid underneath the surface of the ground, or other corporation created under the laws of this state for public use, and such corporation and the owners cannot agree upon the proper compensation to be paid, or in the case the owner is incapable of contracting, be unknown, or be a nonresident of the state, such corporation may apply to the circuit court of the county of this state where such land or any part thereof lies by petition setting forth the general directions in which it is desired to construct its road, railroad, street railway, telephone, or telegraph line or electric line, including, when that is the case, the construction and maintenance of necessary dams and appurtenant canals, tunnels, flumes and tailraces and, when that is the case, the appropriation of land submerged by the construction of such dam, and including the erection and maintenance, when that is the case, of necessary electric steam powerhouses, hydroelectric powerhouses and electric substations, or oil, pipeline, liquid fertilizer solution pipeline, or gas line over or underneath the surface of such lands, a description of the real estate, or other property, which the company seeks to acquire; the names of the owners thereof, if known; or if unknown, a pertinent description of the property whose owners are unknown and praying the appointment of three disinterested residents of the county, as commissioners, or a jury, to assess the damages which such owners may severally sustain in consequence of the establishment, erection and maintenance of such road, railroad, street railway, telephone, telegraph line, or electrical line including damages from the construction and maintenance of necessary dams and the condemnation of land submerged thereby, and the construction and maintenance of appurtenant canals, flumes, tunnels and tailraces and the erection and maintenance of necessary electric steam powerhouses, hydroelectric powerhouses and electric substations, or oil, pipeline, or gas line over or underneath the surface of such lands; to which petition the owners of any or all as the plaintiff may elect of such parcels as lie within the county or circuit may be made parties defendant by names if the names are known, and by the description of the unknown owners of the land therein described if their names are unknown.
2.If the proceedings seek to affect the lands of persons under conservatorship, the conservators must be made parties defendant.If the present owner of any land to be affected has less estate than a fee, the person having the next vested estate in remainder may at the option of the petitioners be made party defendant; but if such remaindermen are not made parties, their interest shall not be bound by the proceedings.
3.It shall not be necessary to make any persons party defendants in respect to their ownership unless they are either in actual possession of the premises to be affected claiming title or having a title of the premises appearing of record upon the proper records of the county.
4.Except as provided in subsection 5 of this section, nothing in this chapter shall be construed to give a public utility, as defined in section 386.020, or a rural electric cooperative, as provided in chapter 394, the power to condemn property which is currently used by another provider of public utility service, including a municipality or a special purpose district, when such property is used or useful in providing utility services, if the public utility or cooperative seeking to condemn such property, directly or indirectly, will use or proposes to use the property for the same purpose, or a purpose substantially similar to the purpose for which the property is being used by the provider of the public utility service.
5.A public utility or a rural electric cooperative may only condemn the property of another provider of public utility service, even if the property is used or useful in providing utility services by such provider, if the condemnation is necessary for the public purpose of acquiring a nonexclusive easement or right-of-way across the property of such provider and only if the acquisition will not materially impair or interfere with the current use of such property by the utility or cooperative and will not prevent or materially impair such provider of public utility service from any future expansion of its facilities on such property.
6.If a public utility or rural electric cooperative seeks to condemn the property of another provider of public utility service, and the conditions in subsection 4 of this section do not apply, this section does not limit the condemnation powers otherwise possessed by such public utility or rural electric cooperative.
7.Suits in inverse condemnation or involving dangerous conditions of public property against a municipal corporation established under Article VI, Section 30(a) of the Missouri Constitution shall be brought only in the county where such land or any part thereof lies.
523.210 - Agencies authorized to establish rules and regulations.
All public agencies are authorized and directed to establish such policies, rules, and regulations as may be necessary to eliminate discrimination in assistance given to displaced persons as provided in the preceding section.
523.259 - Abandonment of condemnation, remedies — applicability.
1.If any condemning authority abandons a condemnation, each owner of interests sought to be condemned shall be entitled to recover:
(1)Their reasonable attorneys' fees, expert expenses and costs; and
(2)The lesser of:
(a)The owner's actual damages accruing as a direct and proximate result of the pendency of the condemnation if proven by the owner; or
(b)The damages required to be paid to an owner in the event of an abandonment under the terms of the applicable redevelopment plan or agreement.
In the event that the applicable redevelopment plan or agreement is silent as to damages required to be paid to an owner in the event of an abandonment, a court shall order the condemning authority to pay the owner's actual reasonable attorneys' fees and expenses, and shall award damages accruing as a direct and proximate result of the pendency of the condemnation if proven by the landowner.
2.The provisions of this section shall only apply to redevelopment plans or agreements entered into after December 31, 2006.
523.100 - Appropriation of lands of corporations by other corporations.
In case the lands sought to be appropriated are held by any corporation, the right to appropriate the same by a railroad, telephone or telegraph company shall be limited to such use as shall not materially interfere with the uses to which, by law, the corporation holding the same is authorized to put said lands.Where no agreement can be made between the parties, the mode of assessing the damages provided heretofore, as to private persons, shall be adopted; and if the lands to be appropriated lie in more than one county, an application may be made in any one county in which any of the lands lie, and the damages shall be assessed as to all the lands of the defendant corporation along the whole line in one proceeding.
523.200 - Definitions.
As used in sections 523.200 to 523.215, the following words mean:
(1)"Displaced person", any person that moves from the real property or moves his personal property from the real property permanently and voluntarily as a direct result of the acquisition, rehabilitation or demolition of or the written notice of intent to acquire such real property, in whole or in part, for a public purpose;
(2)"Public agency", the state of Missouri or any political subdivision or any branch, bureau or department thereof, any public school district, and any quasi-public corporation created or existing by law which are authorized to acquire real property for public purpose and which acquire any such property either partly or wholly with aid or reimbursement from federal funds;
(3)"Urban redevelopment corporation", as defined in section 353.020.
523.055 - Possession of land delivered, when, notice — writ of possession, executed how.
In any action to condemn lands under the power of eminent domain, where the condemnor has paid into the office of the clerk of the circuit court the amount of damages assessed by commissioners pursuant to law, the circuit clerk shall give the owners or those in possession written notice of such fact within five days.If the owners or those in possession do not deliver possession of the property condemned within ten days after the receipt of notice of the payment of the award, then on the request of the condemnor the court shall issue a writ of possession directing the sheriff to deliver the possession of such property to the condemnor forthwith; except that the court may upon the motion of the occupants or owners grant them such extension of time, not to exceed ninety days, as the court finds to be reasonable under all the circumstances.However, any displaced owner of a principal place of residence shall have one hundred days from the date of the award.The writ of possession shall be executed in the manner provided by law for the execution of writs of possession in ejectment suits for the recovery of land.If a writ of possession is issued or a motion filed asking for an extension, then all costs accrued in executing the writ and in the hearing of the motion may be assessed against the said owners.
523.020 - Different owners may be joined in one petition.
Any number of owners, residents in the same county or circuit, may be joined in one petition, and the damages to each shall be separately assessed by the same commissioners.
523.271 - Exercise of eminent domain over private property for economic development purposes prohibited — definition.
1.No condemning authority shall acquire private property through the process of eminent domain for solely economic development purposes.
2.For the purposes of this section, "economic development" shall mean a use of a specific piece of property or properties which would provide an increase in the tax base, tax revenues, employment, and general economic health, and does not include the elimination of blighted, substandard, or unsanitary conditions, or conditions rendering the property or its surrounding area a conservation area as defined in section 99.805.
523.282 - Blanket easements void, when — definitions.
1.Any blanket easement created after December 31, 2006, shall be void as against public policy and wholly unenforceable.For the purposes of this section, the term "blanket easement" shall mean an easement in real property acquired by condemnation or negotiations in lieu of the exercise thereof where the instrument or order of condemnation, by its terms, allows the easement holder to locate its facilities at an undefined location on, over, under, or across the burdened property.
2.Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection 1 of this section to the contrary, the term "blanket easement" shall not apply to any instrument containing language that upon completion of the initial structure explicitly fixes the burden, scope of use, and footprint within the express terms of the instrument and also contains an express statement that the location of the burden shall be fixed to the degree occupied by the initial structure upon completion of such structure.Nothing in this section shall prohibit the expansion or upgrade of the initially completed structure provided that the purpose or purposes and footprint of said expansion or upgrade were explicitly described in the original terms of the instrument.
523.265 - Alternative locations for condemnation, procedure.
With regard to property interests acquired by condemnation or negotiations in lieu of the exercise thereof, within thirty days of receiving a written notice sent under section 523.250, the landowner may propose to the condemning authority in writing an alternative location for the property to be condemned, which alternative location shall be on the same parcel of the landowner's property as the property the condemning authority seeks to condemn.The proposal shall describe the alternative location in such detail that the alternative location is clearly defined for the condemning authority.The condemning authority shall consider all such alternative locations.This section shall not apply to takings of an entire parcel of land.A written statement by the condemning authority to the landowner that it has considered all such alternative locations, and briefly stating why they were rejected or accepted, is conclusive evidence that sufficient consideration was given to the alternative locations.
523.061 - Determination of homestead taking and heritage value.
After the filing of the commissioners' report pursuant to section 523.040, the circuit judge presiding over the condemnation proceeding shall apply the provisions of section 523.039 and shall determine whether a homestead taking has occurred and shall determine whether heritage value is payable and shall increase the commissioners' award to provide for the additional compensation due where a homestead taking occurs or where heritage value applies, in accordance with the just compensation provisions of section 523.039.If a jury trial of exceptions occurs under section 523.060, the circuit judge presiding over the condemnation proceeding shall apply the provisions of section 523.039 and shall determine whether a homestead taking has occurred and shall determine whether heritage value is payable and shall increase the jury verdict to provide for the additional compensation due where a homestead taking occurs or where heritage value applies, in accordance with the just compensation provisions of section 523.039.
523.286 - Declaration of farmland as blighted prohibited — definition.
1.No condemning authority shall declare farmland blighted for the purposes of exercising eminent domain.
2.For the purposes of this section only, the term "farmland" shall mean all real property classified as forest cropland or all real property used for agricultural purposes and devoted primarily to the raising and harvesting of crops; to the feeding, breeding, and management of livestock which shall include breeding and boarding of horses; to dairy operations, or to any combination thereof; and buildings and structures customarily associated with farming, agricultural, and horticultural uses."Farmland" shall also include land devoted to and qualifying for payments or other compensation under a soil conservation or agricultural assistance program under an agreement with an agency of the federal government.
523.261 - Legislative determinations of areas to be condemned to be supported by substantial evidence, hearing, appeal.
Solely with regard to condemnation actions pursuant to the authority granted by Section 21, Article VI, Constitution of Missouri and laws enacted pursuant thereto, any legislative determination that an area is blighted, substandard, or unsanitary shall not be arbitrary or capricious or induced by fraud, collusion, or bad faith and shall be supported by substantial evidence.A condemning authority or the affected property owner may seek a determination as to whether these standards have been met by a court of competent jurisdiction in any condemnation action filed to acquire the owner's property or in an action seeking a declaratory judgment.Upon the filing of such a declaratory judgment or when such a defense is raised in a condemnation proceeding, the circuit court shall give the case preference in the order of hearing to all other cases, except elections cases, to the extent necessary to conclude the case within thirty days of having been filed.Either party may thereafter file an interlocutory appeal of the circuit court's order upholding or rejecting the legislative body's determination.Any subsequent or interlocutory appeal to a higher court on the appeal of the legislative determination shall be given preference and concluded in an expedited manner similar to the manner set forth herein for a hearing in circuit court.An interlocutory appeal shall not stay proceedings in the court unless the court of appeals so orders.
523.030 - Summons, when to issue, how served — publication.
Upon the filing of the petition, a summons shall be issued, giving such owner at least ten days' notice of the time when said petition will be heard, which summons shall be served by the sheriff of the county, in the same manner as writs of summons are or may be by law required to be served.If the name or residence of the owner is unknown, or if the owners, or any of them, do not reside within the state, notice of the time of hearing the petition, reciting the substance of the petition and the day fixed for the hearing thereof, shall be given by publication once each week for three consecutive weeks prior to the time of hearing the petition, in a newspaper published in the county in which the proceedings are pending, if one is published in the county, or if no newspaper is published in the county, or the publisher shall refuse to publish the same on tender of his usual charges for advertising, then by posting up said notice for three consecutive weeks at the door of the courthouse of the county wherein the lands or any portion of them lie.
523.090 - Who may have damages ascertained — proceedings.
In case property is to be, will be, or has been by any corporation damaged for public use, any person interested may have such damages ascertained.The proceedings for ascertaining and paying such damages shall be the same as are and may be provided by law for assessing damages which owners of land may sustain in consequence of its appropriation for railroad purposes.
523.277 - Office of ombudsman for property rights.
The office of public counsel shall create an office of ombudsman for property rights by appointing a person to the position of ombudsman.The ombudsman shall assist citizens by providing guidance, which shall not constitute legal advice, to individuals seeking information regarding the condemnation process and procedures.The ombudsman shall document the use of eminent domain within the state and any issues associated with its use and shall submit a report to the general assembly on January 1, 2008, and on such date each year thereafter.
523.080 - Shall not enter or appropriate dwelling house.
No telephone or telegraph company shall, by virtue of this chapter, be authorized to enter or appropriate any dwelling, barn, store, warehouse or similar building, erected for any agricultural, commercial or manufacturing purposes, or to erect poles so near thereto as materially to inconvenience the owner in their use or to occasion injury thereto.
523.053 - Distribution of condemnation awards among defendants.
1.Within thirty days after the commissioners' award has been paid to the clerk of the court, where there is more than one defendant, those defendants claiming a determinable interest in the proceeds of said award may file with the court an agreement setting out the manner and the percentages in which said award is to be divided among them.If no such agreement is filed during said thirty-day period, any defendant claiming such an interest may by motion for distribution petition the court in which said cause is pending for a determination of the percentage of the commissioners' award to which each of said parties is entitled; provided, that the plaintiff in said condemnation action may have the right to intervene as an interested party in said proceeding, whether it be by the filing of an agreement among the defendants or by the filing of a motion for distribution of the award, and shall be entitled to prior notice of the filing of said agreement or notice of the filing of the motion for said determination and distribution.
2.Within thirty days after the filing of such motion, the court having jurisdiction of said cause shall determine the percentage of the award to which each party having an interest therein is entitled.Any party aggrieved of the determination of interests made by the court shall have the right of appeal therefrom, and the same shall be considered as a final judgment for such purposes.
3.The respective interests of all parties in the award made as a result of the condemnation action, whether determined by said agreement or by the court, shall be final and shall extend by percentage to any additional compensation awarded or any reduction of the award thereafter made, together with interest, on the trial of exceptions, and said interests established shall be binding on all parties, plaintiff and defendant; provided, that when the determinable interest of any defendant is not related to the difference in the value of the property before and after the taking by condemnation, such share set out in the agreement or the court's finding thereof shall not be affected by any increase or reduction so long as the final award is not less than such interest.
4.Any evidence relating to the terms of said determination of interest shall not be admissible as evidence before the jury on the trial of said exceptions.
523.253 - Written offer, requirements — explanation of determination of property value.
1.A condemning authority shall present a written offer to all owners of record of the property.The offer must be made at least thirty days before filing a condemnation petition and shall be held open for the thirty-day period unless an agreement is reached sooner.The offer shall be deposited in the United States mail, certified or registered, and with postage prepaid, addressed to the owner of record as listed in the office of the city or county assessor for the city or county in which the property is located.The receipt issued to the condemning authority by the United States Post Office for certified or registered mail shall constitute proof of compliance with this requirement; provided, however, that nothing in this section shall preclude a condemning authority from proving compliance with this requirement by other competent evidence.Nothing in this section shall prohibit the parties from negotiating during the thirty-day period.
2.(1)Any condemning authority shall, at the time of the offer, provide the property owner with an appraisal or an explanation with supporting financial data for its determination of the value of the property for purposes of the offer made in subsection 1 of this section.
(2)Any appraisal referred to in this section shall be made by a state-licensed or state-certified appraiser using generally accepted appraisal practices.
523.256 - Good faith negotiation required, findings, remedies.
Before a court may enter an order of condemnation, the court shall find that the condemning authority engaged in good faith negotiations prior to filing the condemnation petition.A condemning authority shall be deemed to have engaged in good faith negotiations if:
(1)It has properly and timely given all notices to owners required by this chapter;
(2)Its offer under section 523.253 was no lower than the amount reflected in an appraisal performed by a state-licensed or state-certified appraiser for the condemning authority, provided an appraisal is given to the owner pursuant to subsection 2 of section 523.253 or, in other cases, the offer is no lower than the amount provided in the basis for its determination of the value of the property as provided to the owner under subsection 2 of section 523.253;
(3)The owner has been given an opportunity to obtain his or her own appraisal from a state-licensed or state-certified appraiser of his or her choice; and
(4)Where applicable, it has considered an alternate location suggested by the owner under section 523.265.
If the court does not find that good faith negotiations have occurred, the court shall dismiss the condemnation petition, without prejudice, and shall order the condemning authority to reimburse the owner for his or her actual reasonable attorneys' fees and costs incurred with respect to the condemnation proceeding which has been dismissed.
523.262 - Power of eminent domain limited, how — private entities to have power of eminent domain — notice.
1.Except as set forth in subsection 2 of this section, the power of eminent domain shall only be vested in governmental bodies or agencies whose governing body is elected or whose governing body is appointed by elected officials or in an urban redevelopment corporation operating pursuant to a redevelopment agreement with the municipality for a particular redevelopment area, which agreement was executed prior to or on December 31, 2006.
2.A private utility company, public utility, rural electric cooperative, municipally owned utility, pipeline, railroad or common carrier shall have the power of eminent domain as may be granted pursuant to the provisions of other sections of the revised statutes of Missouri.For the purposes of this section, the term "common carrier" shall not include motor carriers, contract carriers, or express companies.Where a condemnation by such an entity results in a displaced person, as defined in section 523.200, the provisions of subsections 3 and 6 to 10 of section 523.205 shall apply unless the condemning entity is subject to the relocation assistance provisions of the federal Uniform Relocation Assistance Act.
3.Any entity with the power of eminent domain and pursuing the acquisition of property for the purpose of constructing a power generation facility after December 31, 2006, after providing notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where the facility is to be constructed, shall conduct a public meeting disclosing the purpose of the proposed facility prior to making any offer to purchase property in pursuit thereof or, alternatively, shall provide the property owner with notification of the identity of the condemning authority and the proposed purpose for which the condemned property shall be used at the time of making the initial offer.